The culture of carp originated in East Asia, and the first text on aquaculture, Fan Lee's "Treatise on Pisciculture," was written in 473 BCE on carp. Domesticated carp were eventually introduced to Europe (probably through the Middle East) during the 13th century, at which time they were cultivated mainly by monks. They were subsequently introduced into North America in 1877, as a government program to try to popularize them as a food source for a growing immigrant nation. Fish were released in ponds in Druid Hill Park in Baltimore, Maryland; later, surplus populations were released in Washington D.C. This was primarily the project of Rudolf Hessel, a fish culturist in the employ of the United States government. Carp were fairly widely introduced throughout the central eastern States, and introduced carp readily adapted to their new environment, spreading rapidly throughout any drainage area in which they were released. Carp have since become naturalized in almost every water in which they were introduced. However, carp never attained in the U.S. the great popularity they have in Europe.